Learn about studies of the physiologic effects of whole body vibration exercise on young and older people, nursing home residents, geriatric patients, postmenopausal women and the elderly. Physiologic effects include changes in oxygen uptake, gait, posture, body balance and bone mineral density.
A comparison of the physiologic effects of acute whole body vibration exercise in young and older people
Cochrane DJ, Sartor F, Winwood K, Stannard SR, Narici MV, Rittweger J. Sport Management & Coaching, Department of Management, Massey University, Palmerston North, NZ. D.Cochrane@massey.ac.nz
To examine the acute physiologic effects of acute whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise in young and older people.
Every participant performed 9 conditions in a static squat position, consisting of no vibration and WBV at 30Hz and 3 loads corresponding to (1) no load (0% body mass), (2) load of 20% body mass, and (3) load of 40% body mass. A Jendrassik voluntary contraction was also performed with no vibration and WBV at 30Hz with no load and 20% body mass.
Laboratory facilities at a university in the United Kingdom.
Healthy young people (n=12; 6 men, 6 women; mean age, 21.5y) and 12 healthy older people (6 men, 6 women; mean age, 69.2y) from the local community.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
The Physical Activity Questionnaire, anthropometric measures, counter-movement jump, and isometric maximal voluntary contraction with the Jendrassik maneuver were assessed in both groups. Oxygen uptake (Vo2), blood pressure, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during WBV and load conditions as the outcome of the study.
Both vibration and load were associated with an increase (P<.001) in Vo2 for older and young groups. WBV elicited the equivalent of a .35 metabolic equivalent (MET) increase in Vo2, with additional loads of 20% and 40% body mass increasing Vo2 by 0.8 and 1.2 METs, respectively. Additionally, there was an interaction effect of vibration and group in which the WBV-related Vo2 increase was less in the old compared with the young. Both vibration and load caused an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and RPE (all P<.001); however, there were no significant group differences between young and older groups. The Jendrassik maneuver elicited an increase in Vo2 by 27.6% for the old and 33% for the young group (P<.001); however, there was no significant difference between groups.
Vo2 significantly increased in both the older and young people with vibration and additional load and when the Jendrassik maneuver was superimposed with vibration and load. However, the elicited increase in Vo2 (1.2mL x kg(-1).min(-1)) from WBV may be an insufficient stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness.
Cochrane D.J., Sartor F., Winwood K., Stannard S.R., Narici M.V. & Rittweger J. (2008). A comparison of the physiologic effects of acute whole-body vibration exercise in young and older people. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 89(5). 815-821.
Balance training and exercise in geriatric patients
Runge M, Rehfeld G, Resnicek E. Aerpah-Klinik Esslingen, Germany. RungeEsslingen@t-online.de
Objective measures of gait and balance which meet the criteria of reliability and validity are required as a basis for exercise regimens. We established reference values of clinically relevant locomotor and balance performances for geriatric patients. We are using these data for evaluating the effects of different therapeutic approaches to locomotor and balance disorders. Reference values for chair rising. We administered a battery of five tests concerning neuromuscular function, locomotion and balance to a sample of 212 participants without apparent locomotor deficits (139 women, 73 men, mean age 70,5 years, SD 6,78 , median 70 years, range 60 to 90 years, recruited by public announcements). The test battery comprised the ‘chair rising test’ for measuring lower extremity neuromuscular function (five repetitions of rising from a chair as quickly as possible with arms crossed over the chest). The test has been proven reliable, valid, sensible and predictive for falls and future locomotor status and ADL-status. Chair rising [sec/5x], Range: 5.4-19.4, Mean: 9.1 (women:9.2, men:9.0), SD: 1.97, Median: 8.9. Training of balance and muscle power with Galileo 2000 – preliminary results. Galileo is a device for whole body vibration/oscillatory muscle stimulation. The subject stands with bended knees and hips on a rocking platform with a sagittal axle, which thrusts alternatively the right and left leg 7-14 mm upwards with a frequency of 27 Hz, thereby lengthening the extensor muscles of the lower extremities. The reflexive reaction of the neuromuscular system is a chain of rapid muscle contractions. We conducted a randomized controlled trial, n=34 (age: mean 67y, range 61-85, 11 female), cross-over design, intervention group 2 months training program three times a week (each session 3×2 minutes), performance tests of all participants every two weeks). The first 19 subjects have finished the intervention period. They reached mean performance gains in chair rising of 18%, strikingly different to the constant values of the controls! We interpret the findings as improvements in muscle power by the oscillative muscle stimulation.
Runge M., Rehfeld G. & Resnicek E. (2000). Balance training and exercise in geriatric patients. Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions. 1(1). 61-65.
Controlled whole body vibration to decrease fall risk and improve health related quality of life of nursing home residents
Bruyere O, Wuidart MA, Di Palma E, Gourlay M, Ethgen O, Richy F, Reginster JY. WHO Collaborating Center for Public Health Aspects of Osteoarticular Disorders, Liege, Belgium. email@example.com
To investigate the effects of whole body vibration in the elderly.
Randomized controlled trial.
Forty-two elderly volunteers.
Six-week vibration intervention plus physical therapy (PT) (n=22) or PT alone (n=20).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
We assessed gait and body balance using the Tinetti test (maximum scores of 12 for gait, 16 for body balance, 28 for global score), motor capacity using the Timed Up & Go (TUG) test, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36).
After 6 weeks, the vibration intervention group improved by a mean +/- standard deviation of 2.4+/-2.3 points on the gait score compared with no score change in the control group ( P <.001). The intervention group improved by 3.5+/-2.1 points on the body balance score compared with a decrease of 0.3+/-1.2 points in the control group ( P <.001). TUG test time decreased by 11.0+/-8.6 seconds in the treated group compared with an increase of 2.6+/-8.8 seconds in the control group ( P <.001). The intervention group had significantly greater improvements from baseline on 8 of 9 items on the SF-36 compared with the control group.
Controlled whole body vibration can improve elements of fall risk and HRQOL in elderly patients.
Bruyere O., Wuidart M.A., Di Palma E., Gourlay M., Ethgen O., Richy F. & Reginster J.Y. (2005). Controlled whole body vibration to decrease fall risk and improve health-related quality of life of nursing home residents. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 86(2). 303-307.
Effect of 6 months whole body vibration training on hip density and muscle strength and postural control in postmenopausal women a randomized controlled pilot study
Verschueren SM, Roelants M, Delecluse C, Swinnen S, Vanderschueren D, Boonen S. Laboratory of Motor Control, Department of Kinesiology, Faculteit Lichamelijke Opvoeding en Kinesitherapie, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium.
High-frequency mechanical strain seems to stimulate bone strength in animals. In this randomized controlled trial, hip BMD was measured in postmenopausal women after a 24-week whole body vibration (WBV) training program. Vibration training significantly increased BMD of the hip. These findings suggest that WBV training might be useful in the prevention of osteoporosis.
High-frequency mechanical strain has been shown to stimulate bone strength in different animal models. However, the effects of vibration exercise on the human skeleton have rarely been studied. Particularly in postmenopausal women-who are most at risk of developing osteoporosis-randomized controlled data on the safety and efficacy of vibration loading are lacking. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the musculoskeletal effects of high-frequency loading by means of whole body vibration (WBV) in postmenopausal women.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Seventy volunteers (age, 58-74 years) were randomly assigned to a whole body vibration training group (WBV, n = 25), a resistance training group (RES, n = 22), or a control group (CON, n = 23). The WBV group and the RES group trained three times weekly for 24 weeks. The WBV group performed static and dynamic knee-extensor exercises on a vibration platform (35-40 Hz, 2.28-5.09g), which mechanically loaded the bone and evoked reflexive muscle contractions. The RES group trained knee extensors by dynamic leg press and leg extension exercises, increasing from low (20 RM) to high (8 RM) resistance. The CON group did not participate in any training. Hip bone density was measured using DXA at baseline and after the 6-month intervention. Isometric and dynamic strength were measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer. Data were analyzed by means of repeated measures ANOVA.
No vibration-related side effects were observed. Vibration training improved isometric and dynamic muscle strength (+15% and + 16%, respectively; p < 0.01) and also significantly increased BMD of the hip (+0.93%, p < 0.05). No changes in hip BMD were observed in women participating in resistance training or age-matched controls (-0.60% and -0.62%, respectively; not significant). Serum markers of bone turnover did not change in any of the groups.
These findings suggest that WBV training may be a feasible and effective way to modify well-recognized risk factors for falls and fractures in older women and support the need for further human studies.
Verschueren S.M., Roelants M., Delecluse C., Swinnen S., Vanderschueren D. & Boonen S. (2004). Effect of 6-month whole body vibration training on hip density, muscle strength, and postural control in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 19(3). 352-359.
Effects of vibration exercise on muscle performance and mobility in an older population
Rees S, Murphy A, Watsford M. School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of vibration on muscle performance and mobility in a healthy, untrained, older population. Forty-three participants (23 men, 20 women, 66-85 y old) performed tests of sit-to-stand (STS), 5- and 10-m fast walk, timed up-and-go test, stair mobility, and strength. Participants were randomly assigned to a vibration group, an exercise-withoutvibration group, or a control group. Training consisted of 3 sessions/wk for 2 mo. After training, the vibration and exercise groups showed improved STS (12.4%, 10.2%), 5-m fast walk (3.0%, 3.7%), and knee-extension strength (8.1%, 7.2%) compared with the control (p < 0.05). Even though vibration training improved lower limb strength, it did not appear to have a facilitatory effect on functional-performance tasks compared with the exercise-without-vibration group. Comparable mobility and performance changes between the experimental groups suggest that improvements are linked with greater knee-extension strength and largely attributed to the unloaded squats performed by both exercise groups.
Rees S., Murphy A. & Watsford M. (2007). Effects of vibration exercise on muscle performance and mobility in an older population. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. 15(4). 367-381.
Effect of whole body vibration exercise and muscle strengthening and balance and walking exercises on walking ability in the elderly
Kawanabe K, Kawashima A, Sashimoto I, Takeda T, Sato Y, Iwamoto J. Kawashima Orthopaedic Clinic, Chiba, Japan.
The present study was conducted to determine the beneficial effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise in addition to muscle strengthening, balance, and walking exercises on the walking ability in the elderly. Sixty-seven elderly participants were divided into two groups; the WBV exercise plus routine exercises group (n=40) and the routine exercises alone group (n=27). WBV exercise was performed on a Galileo machine (Novotec, Pforzheim, Germany) at an intensity of 12-20 Hz, for a duration of 4 minutes, once every week. All the participants in both the groups were similarly instructed to undergo routine exercises such as balance and muscle strengthening training, and take walking exercise twice a week. The period of this study was 2 months to evaluate the acute effects of WBV exercise. The mean age of the participants was 72.0 years (range, 59-86 years).
At baseline, there were significant negative correlations between age and the walking speed, step length, and maximum standing time on one leg. After the 2-month exercise program, the walking speed, step length, and the maximum standing time on one leg were significantly improved in the WBV exercise plus routine exercises group, while no significant changes in these parameters were observed in the routine exercises alone group. Thus, the present study showed the beneficial effect of WBV exercise in addition to muscle strengthening, balance, and walking exercises in improving the walking ability in the elderly. WBV exercise was safe and well tolerated in the elderly.
Kawanabe K., Kawashima A., Sashimoto I., Takeda T., Sato Y. & Iwamoto J. (2007). Effect of whole-body vibration exercise and muscle strengthening, balance, and walking exercises on walking ability in the elderly. The Keio Journal of Medicine. 56(1). 28-33.
Effects of whole body vibration training on postural control in older individuals a 1 year randomized controlled trial
Bogaerts A, Verschueren S, Delecluse C, Claessens AL, Boonen S. Division of Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Tervuursevest 101, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
This randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of a 12 month whole body vibration training program on postural control in healthy older adults. Two hundred and twenty people were randomly assigned to a whole body vibration group (n=94), a fitness group (n=60) or a control group (n=66). The whole body vibration and fitness groups trained three times a week for 1 year. The vibration group performed exercises on a vibration platform and the fitness group performed cardiovascular, strength, balance and stretching exercises. Balance was measured using dynamic computerized posturography at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Whole body vibration training was associated with reduced falls frequency on a moving platform when vision was disturbed and improvements in the response to toes down rotations at the ankle induced by the moving platform. The fitness group showed reduced falls frequency on the moving surface when vision was disturbed. Thus, whole body vibration training may improve some aspects of postural control in community dwelling older individuals.
Bogaerts A, Verschueren S., Delecluse C., Claessens A.L. & Boonen S. (2007). Effects of whole body vibration training on postural control in older individuals: a 1 year randomized controlled trial. Gait & Posture. 26(2). 309-316.
Effects of whole body vibration on postural steadiness in an older population
Rees SS, Murphy AJ, Watsford ML. Human Performance Laboratory, School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vibration exercise on postural steadiness performance in a healthy, older population. Forty-three healthy, older participants (23 men and 20 women, aged 73.5+/-4.5yr) were randomly assigned to either a vibration group (VIB), an exercise without vibration group (EX) or a control group (CONT). The VIB and EX groups undertook static and dynamic bodyweight exercises three times per week for eight weeks. Static balance was assessed using a one-legged postural steadiness (OLPS) test. This test was performed prior to and immediately after the training period. OLPS improved significantly for the VIB intervention after eight weeks training (p<0.05) compared to the EX and CONT groups. The improvements in OLPS were significantly affected by the baseline values, with the largest changes evident for VIB participants with a poorer initial score (p<0.01). Vibration exercise can contribute to improved static one-legged balance in a healthy, older population. As improvements in OLPS were related to baseline values, vibration exercise as an intervention would appear to serve the most benefit for those that exhibit diminished postural control.
Rees S.S., Murphy A.J. & Watsford M.L. (2008). Effects of whole body vibration on postural steadiness in an older population. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. [Epub ahead of print].
Effect of whole body vibration exercise on lumbar bone mineral density and bone turnover and chronic back pain in post menopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate
Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y, Uzawa M. Department of Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND AND AIMS
Exercise may enhance the effect of alendronate on bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce chronic back pain in elderly women with osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether whole-body vibration exercise would enhance the effect of alendronate on lumbar BMD and bone turnover, and reduce chronic back pain in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
Fifty post-menopausal women with osteoporosis, 55-88 years of age, were randomly divided into two groups of 25 patients each: one taking alendronate (5 mg daily, ALN) and one taking alendronate plus exercise (ALN+EX). Exercise consisted of whole-body vibration using a Galileo machine (Novotec, Pforzheim, Germany), at an intensity of 20 Hz, frequency once a week, and duration of exercise 4 minutes. The study lasted 12 months. Lumbar BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1500W). Urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and standard laboratory techniques, respectively. Chronic back pain was evaluated by face scale score at baseline and every 6 months.
There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics, including age, body mass index, years since menopause, lumbar BMD, urinary NTX and serum ALP levels, or face scale score between the two groups. The increase in lumbar BMD and the reduction in urinary NTX and serum ALP levels were similar in the ALN and ALN+EX groups. However, the reduction in chronic back pain was greater in the ALN+EX group than in the ALN group.
The results of this study suggest that whole-body vibration exercise using a Galileo machine appears to be useful in reducing chronic back pain, probably by relaxing the back muscles in post-menopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate.
Iwamoto J., Takeda T., Sato Y. & Uzawa M. (2005). Effect of whole-body vibration exercise on lumbar bone mineral density, bone turnover, and chronic back pain in post-menopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. 17(2). 157-163.